TEST 1 SECTION I Time 35 minutes 25 Questions Directions: The questions in this section are based on the reasoning contained in brief statements or passages. For some questions, more than one of the choices could conceivably answer the question. However, you are to choose the best answer. that is, the response that most accurately and completely answers the question. You should not make assumptions that are by commonsense standards implausible, superfluous, or incompatible with the passage. After you have chosen the best answer, blacken the corresponding space on your answer sheet.
1. Mr. West: Well, Ms. Smith, by how much do you plan to increase your donation to the cultural society this year? You know how many worthwhile projects we do. Ms. Smith: I’m not so sure of that. I was very upset about the statue you purchased last month. I think I’ll give no more money to your cause. Mr. West: That’s all right: we’ll just put you down for the same amount that you gave last year. Which one of the following words or phrases has been misinterpreted in the conversation? (A) “increase” (B) “you know” (C) “worthwhile” (D) “no more”（D） (E) “same amount”
2. Handwriting analysis—also known as graphology—is a poor way to predict personality types, even though it is used by 3,000 United States firms and by a majority of European companies. In a recent study, five graphologists scored no better than chance in predicting the occupations of forty professionals. Which one of the following is an assumption necessary to the argument? (A) People in the same occupation usually do not have the same personality type. (B) Graphology is an effective means of predicting personality types in non-business contexts. (C) There are more United States firms that do not use graphology than all the United States and European firms that do use it. (D) There are several other techniques for predicting personality types that are more accurate than graphology.（E） (E) There is a correspondence between type of personality and choice of occupation.
Questions 3-4 The simple facts are these: the number of people killed each year by grizzly bears is about the same as the number of people killed by lightning on golf courses. And the number of people killed by lightning on golf courses each year is about the same as the number of people electrocuted by electric blenders. All the horrible myths and gruesome stories aside, therefore, a grizzly bear is in fact about as dangerous as an electric blender or a game of golf.
3. Which one of the following is an assumption that the author relies upon in the passage? (A) Most incidents involving grizzly bears are fatal. (B) Grizzly bears are no longer the danger they once were. (C) The number of fatalities per year is an adequate indication of something’s dangerousness. (D) A golf course is a particularly dangerous place to be in a thunderstorm.（C） (E) Something is dangerous only if it results in death in the majority of cases.
4. Which one of the following, if true, would most effectively undermine the author’s argument? (A) Although the number of people killed by lightning on golf courses each year is very small, the total number of lightning fatalities is many times greater. (B) Electric blenders are among the safest household appliances. were the author to compare fatalities from electrical appliances in general, she would get a much higher figure. (C) Most people would rather take their chances with blenders and golf games than with grizzly bears. (D) Bears in general—including black, brown, and cinnamon bears, as well as grizzly bears—kill many more people than do electric blenders.（E） (E) Statistics show that the number of times people use electric blenders each year exceeds the number of times people play golf each year, which in turn far exceeds the number of contacts people have with grizzly bears each year.
5. Emperor: The enemy empire across the sea has harassed us for centuries. I want to conquer it and stop it once and for all. What advice can you give me? Admiral: If you cross the sea, a mighty empire will fall. Emperor: In that case, prepare the troops. We set sail tonight. Of the following, the strongest criticism of the Emperor’s decision to invade would be that it (A) is certain to lead to the emperor’s defeat (B) is based on opinion rather than objective facts about troop strength (C) contradicts the Admiral’s statement (D) fails to consider fully the possible meanings of the Admiral’s advice（D） (E) is a futile strategy for solving the problem at hand