虚拟语气谓语动词的几种表现形式

文章作者 100test 发表时间 2008:07:25 12:08:38
来源 100Test.Com百考试题网


  1.用在虚拟条件句中
  虚拟条件句及其主句的谓语形式可归纳如下
从句谓语 主句谓语
与现在事实相反 were, did would (should, could, might) v
与将来事实相反 should do, would (should, could, might) v
(可能性极小) were to v
与过去事实相反 had done would (should, could, might) have done
  例1:I would certainly go if I had the time.
  例2:How nice it would be if you could stay a bit longer.
  例3:She would have come if we had invited her.
  如果条件从句中包含有were, had, should或could,有时可把if省略掉,但这时要把were, had, should或could放在主语前面(这种结构在口语中较少使用)。例如:
  1)Had we made (= If we had made ) adequate preparations, we might have succeeded.
  2)Were there no gravity, there would be no air around us.
  3)Should it rain tomorrow, the meeting would be put off.
  2.用在含蓄条件句中
  句子中,假设的情况不用条件从句表示出来,而是用一个介词短语来表示,句子的谓语形式也可遵循表7的规则。这种用法也常见于or, or else, otherwise和but后面的分句中。例如:
  1)Without music, the world would be a dull place.
  2)But for your help, we would have failed.
  3)She would have gone with us, but she didn’t have time.
  4)He must have had an accident, or he would have been here then.
  3.用在错综时间条件句中
  有时候,条件从句表示的动作和主句表示的动作发生的时间并不一致,这时,谓语动词的形式要根据表示的时间来调整,这种句子可称作错综时间条件句。例如:
  1)If you hadn’t watched television so late, you wouldn’t be so sleepy now.(此句为时间交错的虚拟条件句,从句表示与过去事实相反的假设,主句则假设与现在情况相反)
  2)If you were in better health, we would have allowed you to join them in the work.(从句表示与现在事实相反的假设,主句则表示一种与过去事实相反的设想)
  4.用在wish后的宾语从句中
  这种句子主要表示愿望,that常省略。若指现在或将来的愿望,从句用过去时;若指过去没有实现的愿望,从句用过去完成时。例如:
  1)I wish I had learned to play chess.(与过去事实相反)
  2)I wish I remembered his address.(与现在事实相反)
  3)I wish he would try again.(对将来情况的假设)
  若wish 后的宾语从句中用would,可以表示请求,通常意味着说话人的不快或不满。例如:
  1)I wish you would help us.
  2)I wish you would stop asking such silly questions.
  5.用在if only感叹句中
  当表示“但愿”,“要是…就好”时,它的用法和wish基本相同,只是更富有感情色彩,表示一时很难实现的愿望。例如:
  1)If only I knew what you wanted.
  2)If only you hadn’t told him what I said, everything would have been all right.
  6.用在以as if (as though) 引出的方式状语从句中
  当表示过去想象中的动作或情况时,用过去完成时;当表示和现在事实相反或对现在情况有所怀疑时,用一般过去时。例如:

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